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1

This palaeolithic map from 13 660 calBP is one of the oldest maps to date. The map is an engraved stone from the cave of Abauntz and it demonstrates actual surrounding landscape, including mountains, rivers, and ponds. Routes or avenues of access are also engraved.

Mediaitems:
Palaeolithic map , Image representation of the palaeolithic map, Article about a palaeolithic map

Category:
Cartography

2

Map projections of a spherical earth and use of latitude and longitude to characterize position (first display of longitude)

Mediaitems:
Ptolemy's world map, republished in 1482, Ptolemy portrait , Ptolemy world map description, with images, Ptolemy's world map, description and high-res image, Ptolemy history, The world according to Ptolemy

Category:
Cartography

3

The Antikythera Mechanism is a unique Greek geared device, constructed around the end of the second century bc. It is known that it calculated and displayed celestial information, particularly cycles such as the phases of the moon and a luni-solar calendar.

Mediaitems:
Antikythera, Antikythera mechanism, Antikythera front view

Category:
Technology

4

Invention of paper, replacing (somewhat later) writing and other inscriptions on wood, cloth, stone, etc.

Mediaitems:
Tsai Lun portrait, Timeline of paper making, Tsai Lun, portrait and biography, Cai Lun in Wikipedia

Category:
Technology

5

Measurement of the year with great accuracy and building of the first comprehensive star chart with 850 stars and a luminosity, or brightness, scale; discovery of the precision of the equinoxes

Mediaitems:
Hipparchus biography, Hipparchus the Astronomer, Astronomy

Category:
Statistics & Graphics

6

Invention of parchment. Parchment was superior to papyrus because it could be printed on both sides and folded.

Mediaitems:
History of parchment, History of parchment in Wikipedia

Category:
Technology

7

Calculation of the diameter of the earth by measuring noontime shadows at sites 800 km. apart

Mediaitems:
Eratosthenes biography, Eratosthenes of Cyrene

Category:
Statistics & Graphics

8

The first route map ("carte routière''), showing the whole of the Roman world, a map from Vienna, through Italy, to Carthage; painted on parchment, 34 cm. high, by 7 m. in length. (Named the table of Peutinger, after a 16th century German collector.)

Mediaitems:
Peutinger map, Peutinger map images, Peutinger map background

Category:
Cartography

9

The first world map? (No extant copies, but described in books II and IV of Herodotus' "Histories'' (Robinson:1968)

Mediaitems:
The first world map, Anaximander biography

Category:
Cartography

10

Earliest known attempt to show changing values graphically (positions of the sun, moon, and planets throughout the year)

Mediaitems:
Planetary movements diagram, Planetary movements icon

Category:
Statistics & Graphics

11

Triangular diagrams of paired comparisons for electoral systems (how to elect a Pope or Mother Superior, when all the candidates are voting)

Mediaitems:
Llull portraits, Llull portrait, Llull's writings on electoral systems

Category:
Statistics & Graphics

12

Mechanical diagrams of knowledge, as aids to reasoning (served as an inspiration to Leibnitz in the development of symbolic logic)

Mediaitems:
Llull's tree of knowledge, Llull's mechanical disks

Category:
Statistics & Graphics

13

Proto-bar graph (of a theoretical function), and development of the logical relation between tabulating values, and graphing them (pre-dating Descartes). Oresme proposed the use of a graph for plotting a variable magnitude whose value depends on another, and, implicitly, the idea of a coordinate system

Mediaitems:
Oresme portrait, Oresme bar graph, Page from Oresme

Category:
Statistics & Graphics

14

Catalan Atlas, an exquisitely beautiful visual cosmography, perpetual calendar, and thematic representation of the known world

Mediaitems:
Catalan Atlas, detail: Europe, North Africa, BNF listing of images from the Catalan Atlas, BNF description of Atlas catalan (BNF, ESP 30), Detailed description of Catalan Atlas and Abraham Cresques (Henry-Davis), Carte de l'Europe, de l'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient, BNF, ESP 30, Carte de l'Europe, de l'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient, BNF, ESP 30

Category:
Cartography

15

Graphs of distance vs. speed, presumably of the theoretical relation

Mediaitems:
Cusa biography, Annotated links: Nicolas of Cusa on the Web, Nicolas de Cusa portrait

Category:
Statistics & Graphics

16

Invention of moveable type printing press, and printing of the Mazarin bible (leads to a decline in the use of mixed text and graphics)

Mediaitems:
Page from the Mazarin bible, Gutenberg type sample, Gutenberg portrait, Movable types in Wikipedia

Category:
Technology

17

Use of rectangular coordinates to analyze velocity of falling objects

Mediaitems:
The'Arnovalley', the first known and dated work of Leonardo da Vinci, da Vinci portrait, biography of Leonardo da Vinci

Category:
Statistics & Graphics

18

Theoretical description of how longitude may be determined using difference of times by a clock and the associated observed change in star positions (not implemented)

Mediaitems:
Frisius biography, Gemma Frisius portrait

Category:
Statistics & Graphics

19

Description of how to determine mapping locations by triangulation, from similar triangles, and with use of angles w.r.t meridians

Mediaitems:
Gemma Frisius at his desk surrounded by instruments and books, Image from Peter Apianius Cosmographia, edited by Gemma Frissius, Gemma-Frisius Diagram of triangulation, Cosmographia web site, Frisius biography

Category:
Statistics & Graphics

20

The first published illustration of a camera obscura, used to record an eclipse of the sun, on January 24, 1544.

Mediaitems:
Camera obscura, Camera obscura, Adventures in Cybersound: The Camera Obscura, Science, Optics and You - Timeline, 1000-1599, Camera Obscura in Wikipedia

Category:
Technology

21

Trigonometric tables (published 1596 posthumously)

Mediaitem:
Rheticus biography

Category:
Statistics & Graphics

22

Development of a method to fix position and survey land using compass-bearing and distance. (Tartaglia is better known for discovering a method to solve cubic equations)

Mediaitems:
Tartaglia biography, Tartaglia portrait

Category:
Statistics & Graphics

23

Liber de Ludo Alaea, a practical guide to gambling, containing the first systematic computation of probabilities; written in 1562, but not published until 1663.

Mediaitems:
Gerolamo Cardano portrait, Cardano (Galileo project), Cardano biography

Category:
Statistics & Graphics

24

Invention of cylindrical projection for portraying the globe on maps, to preserve straightness of rhumb lines

Mediaitems:
Mercator's 1569 Nova et Aucta Orbis Terrae map, Mercator portrait, Mercator biography, with images, Mercator biography, with related links

Category:
Cartography

25

The first modern atlas, Teatrum Orbis Terrarum

Mediaitems:
Map of the Netherlands, medium, Ortelius world map, from De Camp 1970, Map of the Netherlands, small, Ortelius portrait, Overview of Ortelius and the Teatrum

Category:
Cartography

26

Improvements in instruments for accurately measuring positions of stars and planets, providing the most accurate catalog on which later discoveries (e.g., Kepler's laws) would be based

Mediaitems:
Parallax diagram, Tycho Brahe's wall quadrant, Tycho Brahe portrait, Galileo project summary of Brahe, Tycho Brahe biography, Tycho Brahe "home page''

Category:
Technology

27

Discovery of isosynchronous property of the pendulum (to be used for clocks and measurement)

Mediaitems:
Galileo's pendulum experiments, Properties of Pendulum

Category:
Technology

28

Tables of empirical data, published tables of numbers begin to appear. "Die Tabellen-Statistik,'' as a branch of statistics devoted to the numerical description of facts