"M. A. FishkellerJerome H. FriedmanJohn W. Tukey" returned 20 hits

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Author: Unknown
The Antikythera Mechanism is a unique Greek geared device, constructed around the end of the second century bc. It is known that it calculated and displayed celestial information, particularly cycles such as the phases of the moon and a luni-solar calendar.
Mediaitems: Antikythera, Antikythera mechanism, Antikythera front view
Category: Technology
Author: Unknown
The first route map ("carte routière''), showing the whole of the Roman world, a map from Vienna, through Italy, to Carthage; painted on parchment, 34 cm. high, by 7 m. in length. (Named the table of Peutinger, after a 16th century German collector.)
Mediaitems: Peutinger map, Peutinger map images, Peutinger map background
Category: Cartography
Author: Regnier Gemma-Frisius (1508-1555)
Description of how to determine mapping locations by triangulation, from similar triangles, and with use of angles w.r.t meridians
Mediaitems: Gemma Frisius at his desk surrounded by instruments and books, Image from Peter Apianius Cosmographia, edited by Gemma Frissius, Gemma-Frisius Diagram of triangulation, Cosmographia web site, Frisius biography
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Authors: Johanes Tobias Mayer (1723-1762) & Rogerius Josephus Boscovich (1711-1787)
Beginnings of the estimation of $m$ unknown quantities from $n$ emipirical equations (where $n > m$), taking account of the possibility of errors in the observations (later supplanted by the method of least squares)
Mediaitems: Boscovich portrait, Mayer biography, Boscovich biography
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: John Frederick W. Herschel (1792-1871)
Fitting a smoothed curve to a scatterplot, advocacy of graph paper and graphical methods as standard tools of science. ["The process by which I propose to accomplish this is one essentially graphical; by which term I understand not a mere substitution of geometrical construction and measurement for numerical calculation, but one which has for its object to perform that which no system of calculation can possibly do, by bringing in the aid of the eye and hand to guide the judgment, in a case where judgment only, and not calculation, can be of any avail.'' (p. 178)]
Mediaitems: Herschel's graph of position vs time for $gamma$; Virginis, Derived double-orbit for $gamma$ Virginis, Herschel portrait, John Fredrick Herschel biography (French), Herschel biography, Herschel images
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Etienne-Jules Marey (1830-1904)
First attempt to survey, describe, and illustrate available graphic methods for experimental data
Mediaitems: Marey portrait, Chronophotographical Projections, Cinema firsts: Marey, Pioneers in Aeromodeling: E. J. Marey, Etienne Jules Marey - Movement in Light (english), Google Books: La M'ethode Graphique
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Authors: M. Fontaine (1900s) & Jacques Bertillon (1851-1922) & Émile Cheysson (1836-1910)
This work by Cheysson and Fontaine, reported by Bertillon, was the first proposal of standards for graphical presentation. The paper "Proposals to bring uniformity in the preparation of charts" discusses some key recommendations, including cautious use of symbols and hieroglyphs, and sparing use of comparison by areas. It is proposed that x and y scales be constructed so that the average behaviour corresponds to a curve of 45 degrees. Other attempts to formulate standards for graphical procedures at the International Statistical Congress are discussed in detail.
Mediaitems: Cheysson portrait, On Chart Uniformity (pg. 1) - English Translation , Biographt of Emile Cheysson, Biography of Jacques Bertillon, On Chart Uniformity (pg. 2) - English Translation, On Chart Uniformity (pg. 3) - English Translation, On Chart Uniformity (pg. 4) - English Translation, On Chart Uniformity (pg. 5) - English Translation, On Chart Uniformity (pg. 6) - English Translation
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: Edward Walter Maunder (1851-1928)
Use of the "butterfly diagram'' to study the variation of sunspots over time, leading to the discovery that they were markedly reduced in frequency from 1645--1715 (the "Maunder minimum''). [Earlier work, started in 1843 by H. Schwabe, showed that sunspots exhibit an approximately twenty-two year cycle, with each eleven-year cycle of sunspots followed by a reversal of the direction of the sun's magnetic field]
Mediaitems: Maunder's butterfly diagram, The sunspot cycle, The butterfly diagram, 1904 Butterfly Diagram: Sunspots
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Authors: D. H. Leavens & F. C. Martin
"Log Square'' paper ($log y, log x$, for relations which are linear in log scales)
Category: Technology
Authors: Grace Hopper (1906-1992) & Howard H. Aiken (1900-1973)
Harvard's Mark I, the first digital computer, put in service. Officially known as the "IBM Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator'' (ASCC), the Mark I was 50 feet long and weighed about 5 tons.
Mediaitems: Howard Aiken portrait, History of Computing: Harvard Mark I, Howard Aiken's Harvard Mark I, The "Mark I'' IBM ASCC, Aiken biography
Category: Technology
Author: John W. Tukey (1915-2000)
Beginnings of EDA: improvements on histogram in analysis of counts, tail values (hanging rootogram)
Mediaitems: Hanging rootogram for the fit of a Poisson distribution, Biography, tributes, images, bibliography of JWT, Tukey portrait
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Authors: B. W. White & R. Pickett
Triangular glyphs to represent simultaneously four variables, using sides and orientation
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Author: John W. Tukey (1915-2000)
Graphical innovations for exploratory data analysis (stem-and-leaf, graphical lists, box-and-whisker plots, two-way and extended-fit plots, hanging and suspended rootograms)
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Authors: R. M. Goldwyn (1936-1994) & J. H. Siegel & Herman P. Friedman (c. 1930-2010)
Irregular polygon ("star plot'') to represent multivariate data (with vertices at equally spaced intervals, distance from center proportional to the value of a variable) [but see Georg von Mayr in 1877 cite[S. 78]{vonMayr:1877} for first use]
Mediaitems: Star plot, description and example, Star plot of crime rates in US cities
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Authors: John W. Tukey (1915-2000) & M. A. Fishkeller (1915-2000) & Jerome H. Friedman
Start of true interactive graphics in statistics; PRIM-9, the first system in statistics with 3-D data rotations provided dynamic tools for projecting, rotating, isolating and masking multidimensional data in up to nine dimensions
Mediaitem: Friedman portrait
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Authors: Herman Chernoff (1923-) & M. H. Rizvi
Experiment showing random permutations of features used in Chernoff's faces affect error rate of classification by about 25 percent
Mediaitem: Chernoff faces
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Authors: John M. Chambers & Richard A. Becker (1887-1955)
S, a language and environment for statistical computation and graphics. S (later sold as a commercial package, S-Plus; more recently, a public-domain implementation, R is widely available), would become a lingua franca for statistical computation and graphics
Mediaitems: Boxplot of the NJ Pick-it Lottery, Richard Becker portrait, The R Project for Statistical Computing, A Brief History of S (Postscript), John Chambers portrait
Category: Technology
Author: George W. Furnas
Fisheye view: an idea to provide focus and greater detail in areas of interest of a large amount of information, while retaining the surrounding context in much less detail
Mediaitems: Fisheye view of central Washington, D.C., Nonlinear magnification home page, Fisheye view of central Washington, D.C., Fisheye view of central Washington, D.C., Furnas home page, Generalised fisheye views paper (pdf)
Category: Other
Authors: Paul A. Tukey & John W. Tukey (1915-2000)
The "draftsman display'' for three-variables (leading soon to the "scatterplot matrix'') and initial ideas for conditional plots and sectioning (leading later to "coplots'' and "trellis displays'')
Category: Statistics & Graphics
Authors: John W. Tukey (1915-2000) & Paul A. Tukey
Textured dot strips to display empirical distributions
Category: Statistics & Graphics