# (John) (Napier) returned 21 hits

**John**:1883}.)

1

Invention of logarithms, and the first published tables of logarithms.

Category:
Statistics & Graphics

2

Use of a dot map to display epidemiological data, leads to discovery of the source of a cholera epidemic.

Category:
Cartography

3

Founding of demographic statistics: Development of the idea that vital statistics (records of christenings and burials in London) could be used to construct life tables. The average life expectancy in London was 27 years, with 65\% dying by age 16

Category:
Statistics & Graphics

4

Fitting a smoothed curve to a scatterplot, advocacy of graph paper and graphical methods as standard tools of science. ["The process by which I propose to accomplish this is one essentially graphical; by which term I understand not a mere substitution of geometrical construction and measurement for numerical calculation, but one which has for its object to perform that which no system of calculation can possibly do, by bringing in the aid of the eye and hand to guide the judgment, in a case where judgment only, and not calculation, can be of any avail.'' (p. 178)]

Category:
Statistics & Graphics

5

S, a language and environment for statistical computation and graphics. S (later sold as a commercial package, S-Plus; more recently, a public-domain implementation, R is widely available), would become a lingua franca for statistical computation and graphics

Category:
Technology

6

Another early version of brushing, invented independently of Newton, together with a system for 3-D rotations of data

Category:
Statistics & Graphics

7

Scatterplot matrix, the idea of plotting all pairwise scatterplots for n variables in a tabular display

Category:
Statistics & Graphics

8

First use of the term "statistik.'' The word "statistics'' was first used by Zimmerman in 1787. (For the earlier use of "statist'', "statista'' and other terms, see cite{**John**:1883}.)

Category:
Statistics & Graphics

9

First test of statistical significance based on deviation between observed data and a null hypothesis (used to show that the guiding hand of a devine being could be discerned in the nearly constant ratio of male to female births in London over 1629--1710)

Category:
Statistics & Graphics

10

Representation of logical propositions and relations diagrammatically. [Actually, Liebnitz and, to some degree, Euler had used such diagrams previously.]

Category:
Statistics & Graphics

11

Creation of Fortran, the Formula Translation language for the IBM 704 computer. This was the first high-level language for computing.

Category:
Technology

12

A map of England showing distances between cities arranged for the use of travellers.

Category:
Cartography

13

Automatic recording of bivariate data (pressure vs. volume in steam engine) "Watt Indicator,'' (invention kept secret until 1822)

Category:
Technology

14

Textbook in English devoted exclusively to statistical graphics

Category:
Statistics & Graphics

15

Beginnings of EDA: improvements on histogram in analysis of counts, tail values (hanging rootogram)

Category:
Statistics & Graphics

16

Graphical innovations for exploratory data analysis (stem-and-leaf, graphical lists, box-and-whisker plots, two-way and extended-fit plots, hanging and suspended rootograms)

Category:
Statistics & Graphics

17

Mosaic display to represent frequencies in a multiway contingency table

Category:
Statistics & Graphics

18

The "draftsman display'' for three-variables (leading soon to the "scatterplot matrix'') and initial ideas for conditional plots and sectioning (leading later to "coplots'' and "trellis displays'')

Category:
Statistics & Graphics

19

Textured dot strips to display empirical distributions

Category:
Statistics & Graphics

20

Start of true interactive graphics in statistics; PRIM-9, the first system in statistics with 3-D data rotations provided dynamic tools for projecting, rotating, isolating and masking multidimensional data in up to nine dimensions

Category:
Statistics & Graphics

21

First inclusion of grand tours in an interactive system that also has linked brushing, linked identification, visual inference from graphics, interactive scaling of plots, etc.

Category:
Technology