1900-1949: Modern Dark Ages

If the early 1800s were the "golden age" of statistical graphics and thematic cartography, the early 1900s could be called the "modern dark ages" of visualization (FriendlyDenis:2001:valois).

There were few graphical innovations, and, by the mid-1930s, the enthusiasm for visualization which characterized the late 1800s had been supplanted by the rise of quantification and formal, often statistical, models in the social sciences. Numbers, parameter estimates, and, especially, standard errors were precise. Pictures were- well, just pictures: pretty or evocative, perhaps, but incapable of stating a "fact" to three or more decimals. Or so it seemed to statisticians.

But it is equally fair to view this as a time of necessary dormancy, application, and popularization, rather than one of innovation. In this period statistical graphics became "main stream." Graphical methods entered textbooks (Peddle:1910, Gilman:1917, Haskell:1919, Palmer:1921, Karsten:1925), the curriculum (Costelloe:1915, Warne:1916), and standard use in government (Ayres:1919), commerce (Gantt:1919, Shewhart:1931) and science.

In this period graphical methods were used, perhaps for the first time, to provide new insights, discoveries, and theories in astronomy, physics, biology, and other sciences. As well, experimental comparisons of the efficacy of various graphics forms were begun, e.g., (Eells:1926), and a number of practical aids to graphing were developed. In the latter part of this period, new ideas and methods for multi-dimensional data in statistics and psychology would provide the impetus to look beyond the 2D plane.

Graphic innovation was also awaiting new ideas and technology: the development of the machinery of modern statistical methodology, and

the advent of the computational power which would support the next wave of developments in data visualization.

1900
American Negro Exhibit in Paris
Added: 2019-04-15

References:
Added: 2007-02-01

On Chart Uniformity (pg. 1) - English Translation On Chart Uniformity (pg. 1) - English Translation

On Chart Uniformity (pg. 2) - English Translation On Chart Uniformity (pg. 2) - English Translation

On Chart Uniformity (pg. 3) - English Translation On Chart Uniformity (pg. 3) - English Translation

On Chart Uniformity (pg. 4) - English Translation On Chart Uniformity (pg. 4) - English Translation

On Chart Uniformity (pg. 5) - English Translation On Chart Uniformity (pg. 5) - English Translation

On Chart Uniformity (pg. 6) - English Translation On Chart Uniformity (pg. 6) - English Translation


"We must be careful in wanting, in a graphic translation, to say too much at once. The main merit, one might say, the real purpose of the statistical chart, is the clarity." - Bertillon on Chart Uniformity
References:
Funkhouser:1937 vonHuhn:1931
1901
Smoothing time series
Added: 2009-11-02

Exports from England and Ireland Exports from England and Ireland


References:
Bowley:1901
1904
Butterfly diagram: sunspots
Added: 2008-07-17

Maunder's butterfly diagram Maunder's butterfly diagram

1904 Butterfly Diagram: Sunspots 1904 Butterfly Diagram: Sunspots

1905
Lorenz curve
Added: 2008-07-17

Lorenz Curve Lorenz Curve

1910
Diagrams in textbook
Added: 2008-07-17

References:
BenigerRobyn:1978
1910
Diagrams in textbook
Added: 2008-07-17

References:
Peddle:1910
1911
Exhibition of graphs
Added: 2007-02-01

Trellis-like time series graphs of tuberculosis Trellis-like time series graphs of tuberculosis

Trellis-like time series graphs of infant mortality Trellis-like time series graphs of infant mortality

3D Histogram: The course of death in Saxony 3D Histogram: The course of death in Saxony

Rosele portrait Rosele portrait

1911 to 1913
Hertzsprung-Russell diagram
Added: 2002-12-02

Hertzprung's first 1911 graphs Hertzprung's first 1911 graphs

early Hertzsprung-Russell diagram early Hertzsprung-Russell diagram

modern Hertzsprung-Russell diagram modern Hertzsprung-Russell diagram

1913
Arithmetic probability paper
Added: 2008-07-17

Probability paper Probability paper


References:
Hazen:1914
1913
Parade of graphics
Added: 2008-07-17

Photograph of the Parade of Statistical Graphics Photograph of the Parade of Statistical Graphics


According to Brintonthe graph that most impressed people was one showing the decline in death rate due to improvements in sanitation and nursing.
References:
Brinton:1914
1913
Atomic number
Added: 2008-07-17

Moseley graph image Moseley graph image

Moseley portrait Moseley portrait

1913 to 1914
Graphics college course
Added: 2008-07-17

References:
Costelloe:1915
1914
Standards for presentation
Added: 2008-07-17

References:
JCSGP:1914
1914
Pictogram
Added: 2008-07-17

Comparative pictogram of copper production Comparative pictogram of copper production

Proportion of College Graduates Proportion of College Graduates

Ranks of states on educational features, Fig 33 (514 x 738; 112K) Ranks of states on educational features, Fig 33 (514 x 738; 112K)

1915
Committee on graphics
Added: 2008-07-17

References:
1915 to 1925
Statistical theory
Added: 2007-02-01

R. A. Fisher portrait R. A. Fisher portrait

1916
Course on graphic methods
Added: 2008-07-17

References:
Warne:1916
1917
Gantt chart
Added: 2007-02-01

Gantt Project Gantt Project


As a mechanical engineer and management consultant, Gantt also designed the 'task and bonus' system of wage payment and developed methods of measuring worker efficiency and productivity.
References:
Gantt:1919
1918 to 1933
Course in methods
Added: 2008-07-17

References:
1919
Statistical chartbook
Added: 2008-07-17
1919
Ethnographic maps used at Paris Peace Conference
Added: 2009-04-13

de Martonne portrait de Martonne portrait

Distribution of nationalities in the the countries dominated by Roumanians (2925 x 1959; 1026K) Distribution of nationalities in the the countries dominated by Roumanians (2925 x 1959; 1026K)


De Martonne was a geographical expert and secretary of the Comité d'études, established by the French in 1915 to prepare guidelines for peace and the demarcation of boundaries. In this work, he had to develop ways to represent mixed distributions of different ethnic groups
References:
Martonne:1920 Palsky:1996
1920
Path diagram
Added: 2007-02-01

Wright's first path diagram Wright's first path diagram

Wright portrait Wright portrait

1920 to 1926
Textbooks on graphics
Added: 2008-07-17
1923
Television camera-tube
Added: 2007-02-01

Zworykin,portrait, with kinescope Zworykin,portrait, with kinescope

1924
ISOTYPE method
Added: 2008-07-17

Births and deaths in Germany, from Births and deaths in Germany, from

Infant mortality and social position in Vienna, from Infant mortality and social position in Vienna, from

Number of men living in Europe, from Number of men living in Europe, from

Neurath Isotype image Neurath Isotype image

Neurath portrait Neurath portrait

1924
First discovery of partial residual plots
Added: 0000-00-00
1925
Control chart
Added: 2007-02-01

Walter Shewhart portrait Walter Shewhart portrait

1926
Test of graphics
Added: 2008-07-17

Experimental stimuli Experimental stimuli


References:
Eells:1926
1927 to 1932
Tests of graphics
Added: 2008-07-17

Graphical image used by Washburne: Income Graphical image used by Washburne: Income

Graphical image used by Washburne: Population of Florence Graphical image used by Washburne: Population of Florence

Added: 2008-07-17

Henderson nomogram icon Henderson nomogram icon

1928
Ideograph
Added: 2007-02-01
1929
Electroencephalograph
Added: 2007-02-01

In 1924, Berger made the first EEG recording in man and called it Electroenkephalogram. Berger was the first to describe the different brainwaves in the normal and abnormal brain. He also researched the nature of changes in EEG for brain diseases such as epilepsy.
References:
1930
Timeline on log scale
Added: 2007-02-01

Table of historical events drawn on logarithmic paper Table of historical events drawn on logarithmic paper


von Foerster observed that the closer to the present, the more densely filled the paper was with historical events; conversely, the further you went back the thinner the table. Plotting the data using a logarithmic time scale allowed the history of time to be plotted on one table.
References:
1931
Log-log paper
Added: 2008-07-17

References:
MartinLeavens:1931
1933
Std. statistical symbols
Added: 2008-07-17

References:
Neurath:1973
1933
London Underground map
Added: 2005-01-07

Beck's initial underground map Beck's initial underground map

Beck portrait Beck portrait


Beck, an engineering draughtsman, designed the map like an electrical circuit board, using only vertical, horizontal and 45 degree angled lines. He located stations according to available space. The resulting map was geographically inaccurate, but easier to use to determine how to get from point A to B. Beck's idea was soon copied by most subway (and bus) companies around the world.
References:
1935 to 1950
Lapse of interest
Added: 2008-07-17

References:
1937
History of graphics
Added: 2008-07-17

References:
Funkhouser:1937
1939
Memex
Added: 2007-02-01

He foresaw this operating on an electric analog computer, which was completed in 1942. His description was published in the Atlantic Monthly, "As We May Think'' July, 1945
References:
1944
1st digital computer
Added: 2007-02-01

The "Mark I'' IBM ASCC The "Mark I'' IBM ASCC


The first official record of the use of the word "bug'' in the context of computing is associated with a relay-basedHarvard Mark II computer, which was in service at the Naval Weapons Center in Dahlgren, Virginia. On September 9th, 1945, a mothflew into one of the relays and jammed it. The offending moth was taped into the log book alongside the official report, whichstated: "First actual case of a bug being found.''
References:
1944
Factor rotation machine
Added: 2007-02-01

Harry Harmon portrait Harry Harmon portrait


References: