1800-1849: Beginnings of modern data graphics

With the fertilization provided by the previous innovations of design and technique, the first half of the 19th century witnessed explosive growth in statistical graphics and thematic mapping, at a rate which would not be equalled until modern times.

In statistical graphics, all of the modern forms of data display were invented: bar and pie charts, histograms, line graphs and time-series plots, contour plots, and so forth. In thematic cartography, mapping progressed from single maps to comprehensive atlases, depicting data on a wide variety of topics (economic, social, moral, medical, physical, etc.), and introduced a wide range of novel forms of symbolism.

1800
Automatic time-series graph
Added: 2008-07-17

References:
Keith:1800
1801
Pie chart
Added: 2008-07-17

Playfair's 1805 Statistical Representation of the U.S.A. Playfair's 1805 Statistical Representation of the U.S.A.

Playfair's 1805 Statistical Representation of the U.S.A. Playfair's 1805 Statistical Representation of the U.S.A.

Playfair's diagram of population and taxes Playfair's diagram of population and taxes

Spence portrait Spence portrait

1801
Large-scale geological map
Added: 2007-02-01

Smith's 1815 map Smith's 1815 map

William Smith portrait William Smith portrait


The first known geological map was produced by Christopher Packe in 1743, and depicts South England. Smith's map is impressivefor its size (about 6 x 9 feet--- printed as 15 separate copperplate engravings for a 5x3 grid), scope (all of England, Wales, and part of Scotland), beauty (elaborately hand-colored)and detail. More importantly, he was the first to discover that the strata of England were in a definite order and the first to show that their fossil contents were in the same order.
References:
Smith:1815 Morton:1992
1809
Least squares method
Added: 2007-02-01
1810
Central Limit Theorem
Added: 2012-06-12
1811
Subdivided bar graph
Added: 2008-07-17

Cross-section diagram of the Chimborazo, 1805--07 Cross-section diagram of the Chimborazo, 1805--07

von Humboldt charts von Humboldt charts

Humboldt portrait Humboldt portrait

Humboldt portrait Humboldt portrait

1816
The first weather map
Added: 0000-00-00

The first weather map The first weather map


published
References:
Brandes:1819
1817
1st graph of isotherms
Added: 2008-07-17

von Humboldt isotherms, Annals de Chemie et de physique, 1817 von Humboldt isotherms, Annals de Chemie et de physique, 1817

von Humboldt isotherm von Humboldt isotherm

von Humboldt isotherms from Berghaus' 1849 Atlas von Humboldt isotherms from Berghaus' 1849 Atlas

von Humboldt isotherm icon von Humboldt isotherm icon


References:
Humboldt:1817
1819
Choropleth map
Added: 2008-07-17

Dupin choropleth map of France Dupin choropleth map of France

Dupin portrait, with his map Dupin portrait, with his map


This entry is now deprecated.
References:
Dupin:1826
1820
Natural phenomena
Added: 2008-07-17

Faraday diagram of a magnet with lines of force Faraday diagram of a magnet with lines of force


References:
1821
Ogive curve
Added: 2008-07-17

Fourier ogive Fourier ogive

Fourier portrait Fourier portrait

1822
Mechanical calculating device
Added: 2001-07-02

Babbage Difference Engine Babbage Difference Engine

Babbage portrait Babbage portrait


References:
1825
Gompertz curve
Added: 2007-02-01

Gompertz portrait Gompertz portrait


Gompertz showed that the mortality rate increases in a geometric progression. Hence, when death rates are plotted on a logarithmic scale, a straight line known as the Gompertz function is obtained. The slope of the Gompertz function line indicates the rate of actuarial ageing. The differences in longevity between species are the result primarily of differences in the rate of ageing and are therefore expressed in differences in slope of the Gompertz function.
References:
Gompertz:1832
1826
Choropleth map
Added: 2008-07-17

Dupin choropleth map of literacy in France Dupin choropleth map of literacy in France

Dupin cartogram map of France Dupin cartogram map of France

Dupin portrait Dupin portrait

1827
1st photograph
Added: 2008-07-17

Niepce photo, Point de vue du Gras Niepce photo, Point de vue du Gras

Niepce portrait Niepce portrait

1828
Mortality curves
Added: 2008-07-17

Quetelet portrait Quetelet portrait

1829
Polar-area charts
Added: 2008-07-17

Guerry's polar diagrams Guerry's polar diagrams

Guerry barcharts and polar diagrams Guerry barcharts and polar diagrams


The plate shows six polar diagrams for daily phenomena: direction of the wind in 8 sectors, births and deaths by hour of theday.
References:
Guerry:1829
1829
Comparative choropleth map
Added: 2008-07-17

Balbi-Guerry maps Balbi-Guerry maps

1830 to 1835
Natural phenomena
Added: 2008-07-17

Faraday's iron filing diagrammes, the earliest ever made Faraday's iron filing diagrammes, the earliest ever made

Faraday portrait Faraday portrait

1830
1st dot map of population
Added: 2008-07-17

Dot map of population of France, 1830 Dot map of population of France, 1830


References:
Montizon:1830
1832
Curve-fitting
Added: 2008-07-17

Herschel's graph of position vs time for $gamma$; Virginis Herschel's graph of position vs time for $gamma$; Virginis

Derived double-orbit for $gamma$ Virginis Derived double-orbit for $gamma$ Virginis

Herschel portrait Herschel portrait

1833
Moral statistics
Added: 2008-07-17

Guerry's map of crimes against persons in France Guerry's map of crimes against persons in France

Guerry's map of crimes against property in France Guerry's map of crimes against property in France

Guerry's map of "instruction'' in France Guerry's map of "instruction'' in France

Guerry's map of suicides Guerry's map of suicides

1833
Graphical rank lists
Added: 2008-07-17

References:
Guerry:1833
1833
Population density
Added: 2007-02-01
1833
Stereoscope
Added: 2007-02-01

Charles Wheatstone portrait Charles Wheatstone portrait


In 1857, Wheatstone also introduced the first application of paper tapes as a medium for the preparation, storage, and transmission of data.
References:
1836
Industry and population
Added: 2007-02-01

Population of France, Carte 1 Population of France, Carte 1

Taille, Carte 5 Taille, Carte 5

1836
Mapping prostitutes in Paris
Added: 2008-07-17

Duchatelet's map showing the distribution of prostitutes in Paris Duchatelet's map showing the distribution of prostitutes in Paris

Duchatelet's map showing the origins of prostitutes in Paris Duchatelet's map showing the origins of prostitutes in Paris

1837
1st flow map
Added: 2008-07-17

Harness flow map of transportation of passengers in Ireland Harness flow map of transportation of passengers in Ireland

Harness portrait Harness portrait

1838
Physical atlas
Added: 2007-02-01

Charts showing temperature throughout the world Charts showing temperature throughout the world

World map showing the tradewinds World map showing the tradewinds

Full colour "ideal'' geologic cross-section Full colour "ideal'' geologic cross-section

Berghaus map icon Berghaus map icon

1839
Logistic curve
Added: 2007-02-01

Verhulst portrait Verhulst portrait


Verhulst showed that forces which tend to prevent a population growth grow in proportion to the ratio of the excess population to the total population. (reference from Funkhouser:1937, p.363 fn(46)
References:
Quetelet:1838
1839
Photographic process
Added: 2007-02-01

Daguerre, Parisian Boulevard Daguerre, Parisian Boulevard


The first daguerrotype of the disk of the Sun was obtained by two physicists in Paris in 1845 seeand subsequent improvements in emulsion speeds had enormous repercussions for astronomy.
References:
GribbinGribbin:2000
1843
Contour map of 3D table
Added: 2008-07-17

Lalanne contour diagram Lalanne contour diagram

Lalanne contour diagram Lalanne contour diagram

1843
Polar coordinates
Added: 2008-07-17

Lalanne windrose diagram Lalanne windrose diagram


References:
Lalanne:1845
Added: 2008-07-17

Ethnographical map of Africa Ethnographical map of Africa

Ethnographical map of Europe Ethnographical map of Europe

Ethnographical map of Europe Ethnographical map of Europe

James Cowles Prichard portrait James Cowles Prichard portrait

1843
First Programme
Added: 0000-00-00

Lovelace portrait Lovelace portrait


References:
1844
Tableau-graphique
Added: 2008-07-17

Minard Tableau graphique Minard Tableau graphique

1846
Logarithmic grid
Added: 2008-07-17

Lalanne's Universal Calculator Lalanne's Universal Calculator

Lalanne nomogram icon Lalanne nomogram icon

Lalanne nomogram image Lalanne nomogram image


See also: Lalanne's ambitious Universal Calculatorcombining logarithmic and trigonometric calculations (described by Tourn{è
References:
Lalanne:1846 Lalanne:1844 Tournes:2000
1846
Normal curve
Added: 2008-07-17

Quetelet's graph of a binomial distribution, 999 trials Quetelet's graph of a binomial distribution, 999 trials


References:
Quetelet:1846