Visualizing Categorical Data: inflglim
$Version: 1.4 (12 Jun 2001)
Michael Friendly
York University
Influence plots for generalized linear models
The INFLGLIM macro produces various influence plots for a generalized
linear model fit by PROC GENMOD. Each of these is a bubble plot of one
diagnostic measure (specified by the GY= parameter) against another (GX=), with the bubble size proportional to a measure of influence (usually, BUBBLE=COOKD
). One plot is produced for each combination of the GY= and GX= variables.
The macro normally takes an input data set of raw data and fits the GLM
specified by the RESP=, and MODEL= parameters, using an error distribution given by the DIST= parameter. It fits the model, obtains the OBSTATS and PARMEST data sets,
and uses these to compute some additional influence diagnostics (HAT,
COOKD, DIFCHI, DIFDEV, SERES), any of which may be used as the GY= and GX= variables.
Alternatively, if you have fit a model with PROC GENMOD and saved the
OBSTATS and PARMEST data sets, you may specify these with the
OBSTATS= and PARMEST= parameters. The same additional diagnostics are calculated and plotted.
The INFLGLIM macro is called with keyword parameters. The arguments may be
listed within parentheses in any order, separated by commas. For example:
%inflglim(data=berkeley,
class=dept gender admit,
resp=freq, model=deptgender deptadmit,
dist=poisson,
id=cell,
gx=hat, gy=streschi);
 DATA=

Name of input (raw data) data set [Default:
DATA=_LAST_
]
 RESP=

The name of response variable. For a loglin model, this is usually the
frequency or cell count variable when the data are in grouped form (specify
DIST=POISSON
in this case).
 MODEL=

Gives the model specification. You may use the '' and '@' symbols to
specify the model.
 CLASS=

Specified the ames of any class variables used in the model.
 DIST=

The name of the PROC GENMOD error distribution. If you don't specify the
error distribution, PROC GENMOD uses
DIST=NORMAL
.
 LINK=

The name of the link function. The default is the canonical link function
for the error distribution.
 MOPT=

Other options on the MODEL statement (e.g.,
MOPT=NOINT
to fit a model without an intercept.
 FREQ=

The name of a frequency variable when the data are in grouped form.
 WEIGHT=

The name of an bservation weight (SCWGT) variable, used, for example to
specify structural zeros in a loglin model.
 ID=

Gives the name of a character observation ID variable which is used to
label influential observations in the plots. Usually you will want to
construct a character variable which combines the CLASS= variables into a compact cell identifier.
 GY=

The names of variables in the OBSTATS data set used as ordinates for in the
plot(s).
[Default: GY=DIFCHI STRESCHI
]
 GX=

Abscissa(s)
for plot, usually PRED or HAT [Default: GX=HAT
]
 OUT=

Name of output data set, containing the observation statistics [Default:
OUT=COOKD
]
 OBSTATS=

Specifies the name of the OBSTATS data set (containing residuala and other
observation statistics) for a model already fitted
 PARMEST=

Specifies the name of the PARMEST data set (containing parameter estimates)
for a model already fitted.
 BUBBLE=

Gives the name of the variable to which the bubble size is proportional
[Default:
BUBBLE=COOKD
]
 LABEL=

Determines which observations, if any, are labeled in the plots. If
LABEL=NONE
, no observations are labeled; if
LABEL=ALL
, all are labeled; if LABEL=INFL
, only possibly influential points are labeled, as determined by the
INFL= parameter. [Default: LABEL=INFL
]
 INFL=

Specifies the criterion used to determine which observations are
influential (when used with
LABEL=INFL
). [Default: INFL=%STR(DIFCHI > 4 OR HAT > &HCRIT OR &BUBBLE > 1)
]
 LSIZE=

Observation label size. [Default:
LSIZE=1.5
]. The height of other text (e.g., axis labels) is controlled by the HTEXT=
goption.
 LCOLOR=

Observation label color [Default:
LCOLOR=BLACK
]
 LPOS=

Observation label position [Default:
LPOS=5
]
 BSIZE=

Bubble size scale factor [Default:
BSIZE=10
]
 BSCALE=

Specifies whether the bubble size is proportional to AREA or RADIUS
[Default:
BSCALE=AREA
]
 BCOLOR=

The color of the bubble symbol [Default:
BCOLOR=RED
]
 REFCOL=

Color of reference lines [Default:
REFCOL=BLACK
]. Reference lines are drawn at nominally 'large' values for HAT values,
standardized residuals, and change in chi square values.
 REFLIN=

Line style for reference lines. Use
REFLIN=0
to suppress these reference lines[Default: REFLIN=33
]
 NAME=

Name of the graph in the graphic catalog [Default:
NAME=INFLGLIM
]
 GOUT=

Name of the graphics catalog
Example
%include vcd(inflglim); * or include in an autocall library;
%include data(berkeley);
%inflglim(data=berkeley, class=dept gender admit,
resp=freq, model=deptgender deptadmit, dist=poisson, id=cell,
gx=hat, gy=streschi);
See also
inflogis Influence plot for logistic regression models
inflplot Influence plot for regression models