SAS Macro Programs for Statistical Graphics: Usage Notes
For ease of use, you should copy the macro program files to a directory, and
add the name of this directory to
the list of directories recognized as the SAS Autocall library.
In a DOS or Windows environment, for example, this might be
under Unix, this might be
You can cause SAS to search this directory automatically for macro programs
by adding the following statement to your AUTOEXEC.SAS file:
options sasautos=('macrosdirectory', SASAUTOS);
substituting for macrosdirectory the folder you have copied the programs to. For example,
options sasautos=('c:\sasuser\macros', SASAUTOS);
If you are not sure where your AUTOEXEC.SAS file is, look for a note
in the SAS Log window (or a SAS .log file) like:
NOTE: AUTOEXEC processing beginning; file is C:\Program Files\SAS\autoexec.sas.
If your SAS installation does not have an AUTOEXEC.SAS file,
simply create one with a text editor (e.g., Notepad or Pico).
Under Windows, this file should be saved in the same directory
where SAS.EXE is installed, or, more conveniently, as
Under Unix, SAS looks for this file in your HOME directory.
For historical reasons, some of the macros refer to a global macro variable,
These references will generate harmless warnings, but to avoid them,
include the line,
in your AUTOEXEC.SAS or elsewhere. Alternatively, remove the
&GOUT where it occurs in GPLOT/GSLIDE, etc steps.
If you are running SAS from a networked installation, you may need to
modify the -autoexec option for SAS invocation so that
your local modifications are used.
You may receive unanticipated results if you use multiple macros in
a single SAS session, because global statement parameters (SYMBOLs, PATTERNs, etc.) set in
one macro may be carried over to subsequent macros used in the same
session. (However, since the initial release, most of the programs
have been modified to reset global statements where possible.)
If you are using Version 8+ of the SAS system in interactive mode,
you may wish to add the statement
to the beginning of each macro. Under Release 5.18, you can modify
SYMBOL and PATTERN statements to explicitly specify null values for
parameters (V=NONE, for example).
The macros were originally written to produce hardcopy output on a
white background, and some use the black as a foreground color. If
you are using the macros to generate graphics on a device with a
black background, you may need change all references to BLACK in
the macro to another color, or use WHITE as the background color, by
executing the statement,
GOPTIONS CBACK=WHITE SWAP;
All of the macro programs use keywords for the required and
optional parameters. Default values (if any) are given after the
"=" sign in the parameter list. Thus, it is only
necessary to specify parameters which differ from the default
value, and these parameters may be specified in any order in the
macro call. The following conventions (which generally follow SAS
usage in PROC steps) are used for naming parameters and default
- The name of the input data set to be analyzed or
plotted. The default is usually DATA=_LAST_,
which means that the most recently created data set
is the default if no data set is specified.
- The name(s) of the input variable(s) in the
DATA= data set. VAR=_NUMERIC_ means that
all numeric variables in the data set are analyzed if
no variables list is specified. Some of the macros
understand a variable list specified as a range of
variables, such as VAR=X1-X5, or
VAR=EDUC--INCOME, as in the VAR statement.
Others, especially those using PROC IML, require the
variables to be listed individually, for example
VAR=X1 X2 X3 X4 X5.
- The name of an input variable used to label
observations. There is usually no default ID
- Specifies the name of an input variable used to
classify observations into groups.
- The name of the output data set created by the
macro. OUT=_DATA_ means that the output data
set is named automatically according to the DATA
n convention: the first such data set created is
called DATA1, the second is called DATA2, and so on.
Typically this contains the data which is plotted.
In some cases the macro leaves it to the user to plot
the OUT= data set, so that axis labels,
values, and ranges can be controlled.
- The name of an input or output data set used for
annotating the plot.
- The name assigned to the graph(s) in the graphic
catalog. The default is usually the name of the
- Specifies the name of the graphics catalog used
to save the output for later replay. The default is
WORK.GSEG, which is erased at the end of your
session. To save graphs in a permanent catalog, use
a two-part name.